Assessment of technologies for water quality control of the Bagmati River in Kathmandu valley, Nepal

Swastik Ghimire, Nishan Pokhrel, Susmita Pant, Tunisha Gyawali, Apekshya Koirala, Bandita Mainali, Michael J. Angove, Shukra Raj Paudel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The Bagmati River, running through Kathmandu valley, is heavily polluted because of increasing and unmanaged urbanization, solid waste disposal, and uncontrolled domestic and industrial sewage discharge. Centralized wastewater management has achieved little change and further deterioration is anticipated. This paper identifies the principal causes and proposes key measures for improvement using strategies such as artificial aeration, artificial floating islands, improved waste-water treatment, and drainage nets. A Descriptive Solution Model to further enhance the water quality in Bagmati River is described that aims to restore the declining aquatic ecosystem and river environment. The proposed Descriptive Solution Model can be made applicable to any kind of river and/or river corridor. Furthermore, this study also suggests considering export coefficient as a dynamic variable while assessing non-point pollution sources in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100770
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalGroundwater for Sustainable Development
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • River water pollution
  • Pollution control
  • Bagmati river
  • Water quality
  • Wastewater


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