Assessment of the prevalence of lead-based paint exposure risk in Jakarta, Indonesia

Bret Ericson*, Nickolaus Hariojati, Budi Susilorini, Lara Fisher Crampe, Richard Fuller, Mark Patrick Taylor, Jack Caravanos

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)


    While lead-based paint has been banned for use in residential settings in most high-income countries, it remains commonly available in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite its continued availability, little is known about the specific exposure risk posed by lead-based paint in LMICs. To address this knowledge gap, an assessment of home and preschool dust and paint was carried out in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia. A team of investigators used field portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) to measure 1574 painted surfaces for the presence of lead (mg/cm2) and collected 222 surface dust wipe samples for lead loading (μg/m2) from 103 homes and 19 preschools across 13 different neighborhoods of Jakarta. The assessment found that 2.7% (n = 42) of pXRF measurements and 0.05% (n = 1) of dust wipe samples exceeded the commonly applied USEPA guideline values for paint (1 mg/cm2) and dust (floors: 431 μg/m2; window sills: 2691 μg/m2). Thus, contrary to expectations the locations analyzed in Greater Jakarta showed that exposure risk to lead-based paint appears low. Further study is required in other settings to confirm the findings here. Precautionary measures, such as the proposed ban on lead-based paint, should be taken to prevent the significant social and economic costs associated with lead exposure.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1382-1388
    Number of pages7
    JournalScience of the Total Environment
    Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2019


    • Indonesia
    • Lead
    • LMICs
    • Paint


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