Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) compare prospectively the clinical and radiographic changes in periodontal and peri-implant conditions, (2) investigate the association of changes in periodontal parameters and peri-implant conditions over a mean observation period of 10 years (8-12 years) after implant installation, and (3) evaluate patient risk factors known to aggravate the periodontal conditions for their potential influence on the peri-implant tissue status.
Materials and methods: Eighty-nine partially edentulous patients with a mean age of 58.9 years (28-88 years) were examined at 1 and 10 years after implant placement. The patients contributed with 179 implants that were placed after comprehensive periodontal treatment and restored with crowns or fixed partial dentures. One hundred and seventy-nine matching control teeth were chosen as controls. Also, the remaining teeth (n = 1770) in the dentitions were evaluated . Data on smoking habits and general health aspects were collected at 1 and 10 years as well.
Results: At 10 years, statistically significant differences existed between implants and matching control teeth with regard to most of the clinical and radiographic parameters (P<0.01) with the exception of plaque index (PII) and recession. Multiple regression analyses were performed to associate combinations of periodontal diagnostic parameters to the peri-implant conditions: probing attachment level (PAL) at implants at 10 years was associated with implant location, full-mouth probing pocket depth (PPD) and full-mouth PAL (P = 0.0001, r2 = 0.36). PPD at implants at 10 years correlated to implant location, full-mouth PPD and full-mouth PAL (P<0.001, r2 = 0.47). Marginal bone level at implants at 10 years was significantly associated to smoking, general health condition, implant location, full-mouth PAL and change over time in full-mouth PPD (P<0.001, r2 = 0.39).
Conclusions: These results present evidence for the association between periodontal and peri-implant conditions and the changes in these tissues over 10 years in partially edentulous patients.
- implant dentistry
- longitudinal cohort
- risk factors
- peri-implant conditions
- periodontal conditions