Associations between sun sensitive pigmentary genes and serum prostate specific antigen levels

Visalini Nair-Shalliker, Sam Egger, Agata Chrzanowska, Rebecca Mason, Louise Waite, David Le Couteur, Markus J. Seibel, David J. Handelsman, Robert Cumming, David P. Smith, Bruce K. Armstrong

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Abstract

Background Melanoma and prostate cancer may share risk factors. This study examined the association between serum PSA levels, which is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and variants in some melanoma-associated pigmentary genes. Methods We studied participants, all aged 70+ years, in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project who had no history of prostatitis or received treatment for prostate disease (n = 1033). We genotyped variants in MC1R (rs1805007, rs1805008), ASIP (rs4911414, rs1015362), SLC45A2 (rs28777, rs16891982), IRF4 (rs12203592), TYRP1 (rs1408799), TYR (rs1126809, rs1042602), SLC24A2 (rs12896399), and OCA2 (rs7495174). Generalised linear dominant models with Poisson distribution, log link functions and robust variance estimators estimated adjusted percentage differences (%PSA) in mean serum PSA levels (ng/ mL) between variant and wildtype (0%PSA = reference) genotypes, adjusting for age, body mass index, serum 25OHD levels and birth regions (Australia or New Zealand (ANZ), Europe or elsewhere). Results Serum PSA levels were strongly associated with advancing age and birth regions: mean PSA levels were lower in Europe-born (-29.7%) and elsewhere-born (-11.7%) men than ANZ-born men (reference). Lower %PSA was observed in men with variants in SLC45A2: rs28777 (-19.6;95%CI: -33.5, -2.7), rs16891982 (-17.3;95%CI:-30.4,-1.7) than in wildtype men (reference). There were significant interactions between birth regions and PSA levels in men with variants in MC1R (rs1805007; p-interaction = 0.0001) and ASIP (rs4911414; p-interaction = 0.007). For these genes %PSA was greater in ANZ-born men and lower in Europe- and elsewhere-born men with the variant than it was in wildtype men. In a post hoc analysis, serum testosterone levels were increased in men with MC1R rs1805007 and serum dihydrotestosterone in men with ASIP rs1015362. Conclusion Men with SNPs in SLC45A2, who have less sun sensitive skin, have lower PSA levels. Men with SNPs in MC1R and ASIP, who have more sun sensitive skin, and were born in ANZ, have higher PSA levels. Androgens may modify these apparent associations of pigmentary genes and sun exposure with PSA levels.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0193893
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2018

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2018. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

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    Nair-Shalliker, V., Egger, S., Chrzanowska, A., Mason, R., Waite, L., Le Couteur, D., ... Armstrong, B. K. (2018). Associations between sun sensitive pigmentary genes and serum prostate specific antigen levels. PLoS ONE, 13(3), 1-12. [e0193893]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193893