Pavlovian control of tolerance to the sedative and hypothermic effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP) was demonstrated in two experiments. In Experiment I, drug-experienced rats were repeatedly treated with CDP (30 mg/kg) in one environment (CS+); on alternate days, they were given saline injections in a different environment (CS-). Duration of sleeping and inactivity were used as measures of sedation. A comparable conditioning procedure was used in Experiment II, but tolerance to the hypothermic effect of CDP was the dependent measure. During tolerance testing, rats from both Experiments I and II were given CDP in one of three environments, CS+, CS-, or a novel environment (CSnov). In Experiment I, rats were equally tolerant in all three test environments when duration of sleep was assessed. However, when inactivity was used as the measure of tolerance, rats showed tolerance in CS+ and CS-, and significantly less tolerance in CSnov. Drug-naive controls showed similar nontolerant responses to CDP in all environments, thus ruling out the possibility that the effect of sedation was mediated nonassociatively. In Experiment II, drug-experienced rats showed tolerance to CDP-induced hypothermia in CS+ and CS- but less tolerance in CSnov. A compensatory hyperthermia was observed when these rats were given saline in CS+. There was some evidence for a generalization gradient in the conditional control of tolerance in both experiments.