Astrophotonics: the application of photonic technology to astronomy

S. C. Ellis, S. Kuhlmann, K. Kuehn, H. Spinka, D. Underwood, R. R. Gupta, L. Ocola, P. Liu, G. Wei, N. P. Stern, J. Bland-Hawthorn, P. Tuthill

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceeding contributionResearch

Abstract

Integrated optics has the potential to play a transformative role in astronomical instrumentation. It has already made a significant impact in the field of optical interferometry, through the use of planar waveguide arrays for beam combination and phase-shifting. Additionally, the potential benefits of micro-spectrographs based on array waveguide gratings have also been demonstrated.

Here we examine a new application of integrated optics, using ring resonators as notch filters to remove the signal from atmospheric OH emission lines from astronomical spectra. We also briefly discuss their use as frequency combs for wavelength calibration and as drop filters for Doppler planet searches. We discuss the theoretical requirements for ring resonators for OH suppression. We find that small radius (<10 μm), high index contrast (Si or Si₃N₄) rings are necessary to provide an adequate free spectral range. The suppression depth, resolving power, and throughput for efficient OH suppression can be realised with critically coupled rings with high self-coupling coefficients.

We report on preliminary laboratory tests of our Si and Si₃N₄ rings and give details of their fabrication. We demonstrate high self-coupling coefficients (>0.9) and good control over the free spectral range and wavelength separation of multi-ring devices. Current devices have Q ≈ 4000 and ≈ 10 dB suppression, which should be improved through further optimisation of the coupling coefficients. The overall prospects for the use of ring resonators in astronomical instruments is promising, provided efficient fibre-chip coupling can be achieved.

LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntegrated Optics
Subtitle of host publicationPhysics and Simulations III
EditorsPavel Cheben, Jiří Čtyroký , Iñigo Molina-Fernández
Place of PublicationBellingham, Washington
PublisherSPIE
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781510609860
ISBN (Print)9781510609853
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes
EventConference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations III - Prague, Czech Republic
Duration: 24 Apr 201725 Apr 2017

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE
PublisherSPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING
Volume10242
ISSN (Print)0277-786X

Conference

ConferenceConference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations III
CountryCzech Republic
CityPrague
Period24/04/1725/04/17

Cite this

Ellis, S. C., Kuhlmann, S., Kuehn, K., Spinka, H., Underwood, D., Gupta, R. R., ... Tuthill, P. (2017). Astrophotonics: the application of photonic technology to astronomy. In P. Cheben, J. Čtyroký , & I. Molina-Fernández (Eds.), Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations III [102420O] (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 10242). Bellingham, Washington: SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2265958
Ellis, S. C. ; Kuhlmann, S. ; Kuehn, K. ; Spinka, H. ; Underwood, D. ; Gupta, R. R. ; Ocola, L. ; Liu, P. ; Wei, G. ; Stern, N. P. ; Bland-Hawthorn, J. ; Tuthill, P. / Astrophotonics : the application of photonic technology to astronomy. Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations III. editor / Pavel Cheben ; Jiří Čtyroký ; Iñigo Molina-Fernández. Bellingham, Washington : SPIE, 2017. (Proceedings of SPIE).
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abstract = "Integrated optics has the potential to play a transformative role in astronomical instrumentation. It has already made a significant impact in the field of optical interferometry, through the use of planar waveguide arrays for beam combination and phase-shifting. Additionally, the potential benefits of micro-spectrographs based on array waveguide gratings have also been demonstrated.Here we examine a new application of integrated optics, using ring resonators as notch filters to remove the signal from atmospheric OH emission lines from astronomical spectra. We also briefly discuss their use as frequency combs for wavelength calibration and as drop filters for Doppler planet searches. We discuss the theoretical requirements for ring resonators for OH suppression. We find that small radius (<10 μm), high index contrast (Si or Si₃N₄) rings are necessary to provide an adequate free spectral range. The suppression depth, resolving power, and throughput for efficient OH suppression can be realised with critically coupled rings with high self-coupling coefficients.We report on preliminary laboratory tests of our Si and Si₃N₄ rings and give details of their fabrication. We demonstrate high self-coupling coefficients (>0.9) and good control over the free spectral range and wavelength separation of multi-ring devices. Current devices have Q ≈ 4000 and ≈ 10 dB suppression, which should be improved through further optimisation of the coupling coefficients. The overall prospects for the use of ring resonators in astronomical instruments is promising, provided efficient fibre-chip coupling can be achieved.",
keywords = "Astronomical optics, Waveguides, Micro-optical devices, Ring Resonators, Filters",
author = "Ellis, {S. C.} and S. Kuhlmann and K. Kuehn and H. Spinka and D. Underwood and Gupta, {R. R.} and L. Ocola and P. Liu and G. Wei and Stern, {N. P.} and J. Bland-Hawthorn and P. Tuthill",
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Ellis, SC, Kuhlmann, S, Kuehn, K, Spinka, H, Underwood, D, Gupta, RR, Ocola, L, Liu, P, Wei, G, Stern, NP, Bland-Hawthorn, J & Tuthill, P 2017, Astrophotonics: the application of photonic technology to astronomy. in P Cheben, J Čtyroký & I Molina-Fernández (eds), Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations III., 102420O, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 10242, SPIE, Bellingham, Washington, Conference on Integrated Optics - Physics and Simulations III, Prague, Czech Republic, 24/04/17. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2265958

Astrophotonics : the application of photonic technology to astronomy. / Ellis, S. C.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuehn, K.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.; Gupta, R. R.; Ocola, L.; Liu, P.; Wei, G.; Stern, N. P.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Tuthill, P.

Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations III. ed. / Pavel Cheben; Jiří Čtyroký ; Iñigo Molina-Fernández. Bellingham, Washington : SPIE, 2017. 102420O (Proceedings of SPIE; Vol. 10242).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceeding contributionResearch

TY - GEN

T1 - Astrophotonics

T2 - the application of photonic technology to astronomy

AU - Ellis,S. C.

AU - Kuhlmann,S.

AU - Kuehn,K.

AU - Spinka,H.

AU - Underwood,D.

AU - Gupta,R. R.

AU - Ocola,L.

AU - Liu,P.

AU - Wei,G.

AU - Stern,N. P.

AU - Bland-Hawthorn,J.

AU - Tuthill,P.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Integrated optics has the potential to play a transformative role in astronomical instrumentation. It has already made a significant impact in the field of optical interferometry, through the use of planar waveguide arrays for beam combination and phase-shifting. Additionally, the potential benefits of micro-spectrographs based on array waveguide gratings have also been demonstrated.Here we examine a new application of integrated optics, using ring resonators as notch filters to remove the signal from atmospheric OH emission lines from astronomical spectra. We also briefly discuss their use as frequency combs for wavelength calibration and as drop filters for Doppler planet searches. We discuss the theoretical requirements for ring resonators for OH suppression. We find that small radius (<10 μm), high index contrast (Si or Si₃N₄) rings are necessary to provide an adequate free spectral range. The suppression depth, resolving power, and throughput for efficient OH suppression can be realised with critically coupled rings with high self-coupling coefficients.We report on preliminary laboratory tests of our Si and Si₃N₄ rings and give details of their fabrication. We demonstrate high self-coupling coefficients (>0.9) and good control over the free spectral range and wavelength separation of multi-ring devices. Current devices have Q ≈ 4000 and ≈ 10 dB suppression, which should be improved through further optimisation of the coupling coefficients. The overall prospects for the use of ring resonators in astronomical instruments is promising, provided efficient fibre-chip coupling can be achieved.

AB - Integrated optics has the potential to play a transformative role in astronomical instrumentation. It has already made a significant impact in the field of optical interferometry, through the use of planar waveguide arrays for beam combination and phase-shifting. Additionally, the potential benefits of micro-spectrographs based on array waveguide gratings have also been demonstrated.Here we examine a new application of integrated optics, using ring resonators as notch filters to remove the signal from atmospheric OH emission lines from astronomical spectra. We also briefly discuss their use as frequency combs for wavelength calibration and as drop filters for Doppler planet searches. We discuss the theoretical requirements for ring resonators for OH suppression. We find that small radius (<10 μm), high index contrast (Si or Si₃N₄) rings are necessary to provide an adequate free spectral range. The suppression depth, resolving power, and throughput for efficient OH suppression can be realised with critically coupled rings with high self-coupling coefficients.We report on preliminary laboratory tests of our Si and Si₃N₄ rings and give details of their fabrication. We demonstrate high self-coupling coefficients (>0.9) and good control over the free spectral range and wavelength separation of multi-ring devices. Current devices have Q ≈ 4000 and ≈ 10 dB suppression, which should be improved through further optimisation of the coupling coefficients. The overall prospects for the use of ring resonators in astronomical instruments is promising, provided efficient fibre-chip coupling can be achieved.

KW - Astronomical optics

KW - Waveguides

KW - Micro-optical devices

KW - Ring Resonators

KW - Filters

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U2 - 10.1117/12.2265958

DO - 10.1117/12.2265958

M3 - Conference proceeding contribution

SN - 9781510609853

T3 - Proceedings of SPIE

BT - Integrated Optics

PB - SPIE

CY - Bellingham, Washington

ER -

Ellis SC, Kuhlmann S, Kuehn K, Spinka H, Underwood D, Gupta RR et al. Astrophotonics: the application of photonic technology to astronomy. In Cheben P, Čtyroký J, Molina-Fernández I, editors, Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations III. Bellingham, Washington: SPIE. 2017. 102420O. (Proceedings of SPIE). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2265958