Bilateral internal mammary arteries: evidence and technical considerations

Michael P. Vallely, J. James B. Edelman, Michael K. Wilson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) grafts are used for coronary revascularisation by only a minority of surgeons, despite a growing body of evidence suggesting improved survival when compared to use of only one internal mammary artery with additional saphenous vein grafts. Herein we review the evidence supporting revascularisation with BIMA and suggest reasons why the majority of surgeons use only one internal mammary artery. We discuss technical considerations, various graft combinations and the use of BIMA to facilitate anaortic off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB).

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)570-577
    Number of pages8
    JournalAnnals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2013


    • Internal mammary artery
    • BIMA
    • coronary artery bypass graft
    • OPCAB


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