Five related antibiotic compounds, named xenorhabdins, were isolated from cultures of Xenorhabdus spp., bacteria symbiotically associated with insect-pathogenic nematodes. Their chemical structures were elucidated by X-ray crystallography, nmr, and mass spectral analyses to be N-acyl derivatives of either 6-amino-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1,2-dithiolo [4,3–b] pyrrole (compounds 1–3)or 6-amino-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-5-oxo-1,2-dithiolo[4,3-b] pyrrole (compounds 4 and 5). They are previously unreported members of the pyrrothine family of antibiotics. Antimicrobial and insectidical activities were found. These metabolites are specific to phase one Xenorhabdus.