Introduction: Pituitary carcinoma is a rare tumor originating from adenohypophyseal cells. Currently, diverse pathogenetic mechanisms, i.e. de novo versus malignant transformation from pituitary adenoma, remain obscure and require further investigation. During the last two decades, scientific research added new horizons not only in regards to general tumor concepts but also in next generation biomarker armamentarium that sheds light on alternate pathways in carcinogenesis. Areas covered: In this review, the impact of apoptotic and proliferative markers, angiogenesis, telomerase activity, H-ras, HIF-1, HER-2/neu, Rb gene, and microRNAs in pathogenetic mechanisms of pituitary carcinomas were revised. Expert commentary: It is becoming increasingly important for the need of standardization of new biomarkers but also for better comprehension of the diverse pathways in tumorigenesis. This can only be accomplished by tapping into the continuously expanding spectrum of new biomarkers.
- pituitary carcinoma