While epidemiologic studies suggest that bone turnover biomarkers may predict hip fracture risk, findings are inconsistent and Asian data are lacking. We conducted a matched case–control (1:1) study nested in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort of Chinese men and women (45–74 years) recruited from 1993 to 1998 in Singapore. One hundred cases with incident hip fracture and 100 individually matched controls were randomly selected from 63,257 participants. Serum bone turnover biomarkers, namely bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), N-terminal and C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX-I and CTX-I) were measured using immunoassays. Hip fracture cases had significantly higher serum levels of OC, PINP, CTX-I and NTX-I than controls (p < 0.05). There was a dose-dependent positive relationship between OC, PINP, CTX-I and NTX-I and risk of hip fracture (all Ps for trend ≤ 0.006), where the risk was significantly increased by 4.32–8.23 folds for the respective BTM [Quartile (Q) 4 vs. Q1]. The odds ratio [OR (95% CI)] at the highest quartile (Q4) was 6.63 (2.02–21.18) for PINP and 4.92 (1.67–14.51) for CTX-I. The joint effect of PINP and CTX-I showed a 7-fold increase in risk (OR: 7.36; 95% CI: 2.53–21.41) comparing participants with higher levels of PINP (Q4) and CTX-I (Q3–Q4) to those with low levels of PINP (Q1–Q3) and CTX-I (Q1–Q2). Our data demonstrated that higher serum levels of bone turnover biomarkers were associated with increased risk of hip fracture in an Asian population.
- Bone turnover biomarker
- Hip fracture