The notion that neurocognitive deficits may be core to the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received considerable attention in recent years, with growing evidence pointing to cognitive deficits in executive function (EF). A relationship between EF and BPD has long been suggested by evidence of high comorbidity between BPD and disorders characterized by poor EF (e.g. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder); however, despite a marked increase in studies of EF and BPD in recent years, the precise nature of this relationship remains unclear. We provide a systematic review of this emerging evidence base, with respect to (1) studies of participants diagnosed with BPD in which EF has been indexed in isolation from broader cognitive processes; (2) the specific domains of EF that have been most robustly associated with BPD; and (3) whether deficits in EF are uniquely associated with BPD, independent of comorbid psychopathology. Key directions for future research are discussed with respect to strategies for measuring EF and the need for research designs that control for phenotypic overlap between BPD and related forms of psychopathology.