Bright galaxy sample in the Kilo-Degree Survey Data Release 4: Selection, photometric redshifts, and physical properties

M. Bilicki, A. Dvornik, H. Hoekstra, A. H. Wright, N. E. Chisari, M. Vakili, M. Asgari, B. Giblin, C. Heymans, H. Hildebrandt, B. W. Holwerda, A. Hopkins, H. Johnston, A. Kannawadi, K. Kuijken, S. J. Nakoneczny, H. Y. Shan, A. Sonnenfeld, E. Valentijn

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We present a bright galaxy sample with accurate and precise photometric redshifts (photo-zs), selected using ugriZYJHKs photometry from the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) Data Release 4. The highly pure and complete dataset is flux-limited at r < 20 mag, covers ∼1000 deg2, and contains about 1 million galaxies after artifact masking. We exploit the overlap with Galaxy And Mass Assembly spectroscopy as calibration to determine photo-zs with the supervised machine learning neural network algorithm implemented in the ANNz2 software. The photo-zs have a mean error of |( δz) |∼5 × 10-4 and low scatter (scaled mean absolute deviation of ∼0.018(1 + z)); they are both practically independent of the r-band magnitude and photo-z at 0.05 < zphot < 0.5. Combined with the 9-band photometry, these allow us to estimate robust absolute magnitudes and stellar masses for the full sample. As a demonstration of the usefulness of these data, we split the dataset into red and blue galaxies, used them as lenses, and measured the weak gravitational lensing signal around them for five stellar mass bins. We fit a halo model to these high-precision measurements to constrain the stellar-mass-halo-mass relations for blue and red galaxies. We find that for high stellar mass (M★ > 5 × 1011 M), the red galaxies occupy dark matter halos that are much more massive than those occupied by blue galaxies with the same stellar mass.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA82
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Reproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics, Copyright ESO 2021. First published in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 653, A82, 2021, published by EDP Sciences. The original publication is available at Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • Catalogs
  • Galaxies: distances and redshifts
  • Gravitational lensing: weak
  • Large-scale structure of Universe
  • Methods: data analysis


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