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A recent renaissance in Brillouin scattering research has been driven by the increasing maturity of photonic integration platforms and nanophotonics. The result is a new breed of chip-based devices that exploit acousto-optic interactions to create lasers, amplifiers, filters, delay lines and isolators. Here, we provide a detailed overview of Brillouin scattering in integrated waveguides and resonators, covering key concepts such as the stimulation of the Brillouin process, in which the optical field itself induces acoustic vibrations, the importance of acoustic confinement, methods for calculating and measuring Brillouin gain, and the diversity of materials platforms and geometries. Our Review emphasizes emerging applications in microwave photonics, signal processing and sensing, and concludes with a perspective for future directions.