Building applied natural language generation systems

Ehud Reiter, Robert Dale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

368 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, we give an overview of Natural Language Generation (NLG) from an applied system-building perspective. The article includes a discussion of when NLG techniques should be used; suggestions for carrying out requirements analyses; and a description of the basic NLG tasks of content determination, discourse planning, sentence aggregation, lexicalization, referring expression generation, and linguistic realisation. Throughout, the emphasis is on established techniques that can be used to build simple but practical working systems now. We also provide pointers to techniques in the literature that are appropriate for more complicated scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-87
Number of pages31
JournalNatural Language Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1997


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