Building models of adult second-language writing instruction

Alister Cumming*, Abdolmehdi Riazi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


This paper first reviews recent attempts to describe formal models of second-language writing; we then identify three major issues in need of clarification to advance model-building in this domain. We discuss these issues in respect to findings from a preliminary attempt to develop a process-product model of ESL writing instruction based on analyses of antecedent, process and outcome variables for 108 ESL learners from diverse cultural backgrounds in 6-week intensive courses at a Canadian university. Findings from multivariate, regression, correlation and exploratory factor analyses indicated that the tentative model had little explanatory power overall but pointed toward interesting interactions in achievement for (a) different aspects of L2 writing among (b) learners at different levels of L2 proficiency and with (c) differing orientations to learning L2 writing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-71
Number of pages17
JournalLearning and Instruction
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Explanatory models
  • Second languages
  • Writing


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