Sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally benign pest management technique that involves releasing millions of sterile insects to suppress reproduction of pest populations. Many fruit flies, including Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt, ‘Q-fly’), have long adult maturation periods such that pre-maturation mortality can greatly reduce abundance of sexually active sterile males and impede SIT efficacy. Q-fly is the most difficult and costly challenge to market access for Australia’s horticulture industries, and has been targeted for intensive use of SIT program. We here demonstrate potential of pre-release caffeine supplements as a novel means to accelerate sexual maturation in male Q-fly. In mating trials, analytical caffeine was very effective at accelerating sexual maturation, while no positive effects of caffeine-containing instant coffee or guarana supplements were detected. In parallel, development of testes and ejaculatory apodemes was accelerated in males provided analytical caffeine but not instant coffee or guarana. High doses of guarana and instant coffee reduced longevity while even the highest doses of analytical caffeine did not affect longevity. Pre-release caffeine supplements promote sexual maturation in Q-flies, and similar benefits are expected in other fruit flies having long adult maturation periods.