cDNA encoding a marsupial polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) was isolated from Macropus eugenii (tammar wallaby) mammary lymph node primarily by reverse transcriptase coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. This resulted in a 5′ truncated clone and, in order to obtain the full-length sequence, genomic walking PCR was utilized. The complete sequence consists of 2696 bp of cDNA and encodes a predicted polypeptide of 732 amino acids. The wallaby sequence is highly conserved in relation to the only other reported marsupial pIgR sequence, that of Trichosurus vulpecula (brushtail possum), having a nucleotide identity of 86.7% and a deduced amino acid identity of 79.9%. The wallaby nucleotide sequence also has a moderate degree of similarity with the pIgR sequences of eutherian mammals, being most similar to that of the rat, with an identity of 63.1%. At the amino acid level, in comparison to eutherian sequences, the wallaby pIgR is most similar to that of humans with an identity of 52.6%. pIgR phylogenetic trees were constructed for tammar wallaby, brushtail possum and several eutherian mammal cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences. In both DNA and protein analyses, the eutherian sequences formed a sister clade to the exclusion of the marsupial sequences, in agreement with the current view of mammalian evolution.