The cellular components of colostrum and milk of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) have been investigated over the period of oestrus, lactation and weaning. Macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other vacuolated mononuclear cells were identified. The total number and diversity of cells were higher in colostral secretions and in secretions from post-lactational mammary glands. Neutrophils were the predominant cell type in early secretions. Macrophages were more prevalent in the milk of animals that no longer had young attached to the teat. These observations are consistent with suggestions that phagocytic cells play a role in post-lactational repair of the mammary gland but also suggest that non-specific phagocytic protection plays a role in protection of the neonatal marsupial.