CFD modeling of swirl and nonswirl gas injections into liquid baths using top submerged lances

Nazmul Huda*, J. Naser, G. Brooks, M. A. Reuter, R. W. Matusewicz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Fluid flow phenomena in a cylindrical bath stirred by a top submerged lance (TSL) gas injection was investigated by using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling technique for an isothermal air-water system. The multiphase flow simulation, based on the Euler-Euler approach, elucidated the effect of swirl and nonswirl flow inside the bath. The effects of the lance submergence level and the air flow rate also were investigated. The simulation results for the velocity fields and the generation of turbulence in the bath were validated against existing experimental data from the previous water model experimental study by Morsi et al. [1] The model was extended to measure the degree of the splash generation for different liquid densities at certain heights above the free surface. The simulation results showed that the two-thirds lance submergence level provided better mixing and high liquid velocities for the generation of turbulence inside the water bath. However, it is also responsible for generating more splashes in the bath compared with the one-third lance submergence level. An approach generally used by heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system simulations was applied to predict the convective mixing phenomena. The simulation results for the air-water system showed that mean convective mixing for swirl flow is more than twice than that of nonswirl in close proximity to the lance. A semiempirical equation was proposed from the results of the present simulation to measure the vertical penetration distance of the air jet injected through the annulus of the lance in the cylindrical vessel of the model, which can be expressed as L va = 0.215(d o - d i)Fr 0.4745 m. More work still needs to be done to predict the detail process kinetics in a real furnace by considering nonisothermal high-temperature systems with chemical reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-50
Number of pages16
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes


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