Changing labor-force gender composition and male-female income diversity in Singapore

Pundarik Mukhopadhaya*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


This paper traces the employment trends by gender in various industries, occupational groups, and educational levels in the city-state of Singapore. Over the years, Singapore's female labor-force participation rate has increased as a result of rising educational attainment. At the same time, income inequality among the females has increased, while male-female income inequality has decreased. This paper explores the gender wage gap at various occupational and educational levels. It is found that the gender wage gap has been reduced over the period 1975-1999. This paper also finds that because of a lack of sufficient childcare facilities and unavailability of part-time work, women who leave the labor market to start families face certain obstacles when trying to re-enter the workforce.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-568
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Asian Economics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2001
Externally publishedYes


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