The genetic arrangement of the regions involved in R124 replication and incompatibility have been located and their homology to the IncFI basic replicons has been assessed. We show that R124 has homology with all three basic replicons, RepFIA, RepFIB, and RepFIC, and that these regions, FIVA, RepFIVB, and RepFIVC, are widely separated on the R124 genome. Cloning of autonomously replicating fragments has shown that RepFIVB and RepFIVC are functional in R124 and express incompatibility. The FIVA region was unable to form a functional replicon and when cloned into pUC8 lacked incompatibility activity. A fourth region of R124 was identified, which although not essential for replication stabilized mini-R124 plasmid replication and exhibited incompatibility with R124. This region, designated IncIV, showed no homology to RepFIA, RepFIB, or RepFIC. Incompatibility expression of IncIV required only the EcoRI fragment E13 but the strength of the reaction was modified in the presence of other fragments. The replication and incompatibility properties of an R124 deletion derivative indicated that R124 can switch its replication to either RepFIVB or RepFIVC when in the presence of an incompatible plasmid. The ambiguous incompatibility reactions reported for R124 is a result of the expression of the two functional replicons, RepFIVB and RepFIVC, and that expressed by IncIV.