Oxidative stress plays a central role in the common pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Antioxidant therapy has been suggested for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Compounds derived from natural sources may offer the potential for new treatment options. Semen Celosiae is a traditional Chinese edible herbal medicine with a long history in China and exhibits wide-reaching biological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-diarrheal, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, etc. In this study, nine saponins and two phenylacetonitrile glycosides were isolated from Semen Celosiae and their structures were identified using ESI-MS and NMR techniques. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 have not been previously reported. The total concentrations of the five triterpenoid saponins and the two phenylacetonitrile glycosides were 3.348 mg g-1 and 0.187 mg g-1, respectively, suggesting that Semen Celosiae is a novel viable source of the two kinds of compounds. These compounds were observed to significantly attenuate t-BHP-induced neuronal damage by effectively enhancing cell viability and decreasing reactive oxygen species generation and cell apoptosis rate in NSC-34 cells. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 7 reduced the ratios of cleaved caspase-3: caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-7: caspase-7 and the level of cytochrome C, while they increased the levels of SOD1 and Beclin 1. These findings suggest that compounds 1-11 are potent inhibitors of neuron injury elicited by t-BHP, possibly via inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis, and activation of autophagy; therefore they may be valuable leads for future therapeutic development.