Chemical immobilization of metals and metalloids by phosphates

Erla G. Hafsteinsdóttir*, Danielle Camenzuli, Amy L. Rocavert, James Walworth, Damian B. Gore

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


Remediation of metal contaminated media using orthophosphate fixation forms insoluble and non-bioavailable salts from metal and phosphate sources. The main focus has been on fixation of Pb, where the formation of pyromorphite, the most insoluble lead phosphate, has shown the great potential of this remediation technique. Other metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Eu, Ni, U, Zn) also have potential for effective fixation by orthophosphate. We review the applicability of the treatment across wider environmental conditions, particularly in surface soil, its use with elements other than Pb, product stability and efficiency with mixed contaminants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-62
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Geochemistry
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2015


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