This paper aims to examine China’s engagement with the Svalbard Treaty over the past hundred years. It first provides an overview of China’s involvement of the Svalbard Treaty as part of the post-World War I international order. The paper then discusses China’s current expansion in the Arctic, including in the Svalbard Archipelago. As a rising power, China has become more and more confident in interpreting and shaping the existing global governance regimes in order to pursue its own national interests. This paper therefore sheds light on China’s potential future positions on the interpretation of the Svalbard Treaty in a changing world order.