G-banded metaphase preparations of cultured fibroblasts were used to construct the karyotypes of Petrogale brachyotis (2n = 18) and P. concinna (2n = 16). The two karyotypes differ significantly from the plesiomorphic karyotype of the genus and from those of all other Petrogale species examined. Petrogale brachyotis and P. concinna are characterised by three synapomorphies: a 1-10 centric fusion, a 3a-6 centric fusion, and a submetacentric chromosome 2 (2s). Both species also possess autapomorphies. Petrogale brachyotis is characterised by submetacentric chromosomes 5 (5s) and 4 (4sm), whereas P. concinna is characterised by a 5-9 centric fusion and a submetacentric chromosome 8 (8m). The 2s, 5s, 4sm, and 8m chromosomes all appear to be derived from their plesiomorphic homologs by centromeric transpositions. Although the rate of chromosome evolution varies considerably in Petrogale, the genus clearly exhibits karyotypic orthoselection, with all the autosomal rearrangements identified being either centric fusions or centromeric transpositions. This study also illustrates the potential for convergent evolution in chromosomally diverse groups and demonstrates the importance of G-banding studies for accurate identification of chromosome rearrangements.