A retrospective cohort of injection drug users with newly acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was established to examine viral clearance. Newly acquired HCV infection was defined by anti-HCV antibody seroconversion within a 2-year interval. Stored serum samples were tested for HCV RNA, with viral clearance defined as ≥2 consecutive negative HCV RNA test results after infection. Ninety-nine cases of HCV infection were identified; 57 had ≥2 HCV RNA test results after infection. Viral clearance occurred in 24 (42%) cases, with Kaplan-Meier estimated probabilities of 23%, 38%, and 40% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively.