Click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex: Stimulus-response properties in superior canal dehiscence

S. T. Aw, M. J. Todd, G. E. Aw, J. S. Magnussen, I. S. Curthoys, G. M. Halmagyi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: An enlarged, low-threshold click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be averaged from the vertical electro-oculogram in a superior canal dehiscence (SCD), a temporal bone defect between the superior semicircular canal and middle cranial fossa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the origin and quantitative stimulus-response properties of the click-evoked VOR. METHODS: Three-dimensional, binocular eye movements evoked by air-conducted 100-microsecond clicks (110 dB normal hearing level, 145 dB sound pressure level, 2 Hz) were measured with dual-search coils in 11 healthy subjects and 19 patients with SCD confirmed by CT imaging. Thresholds were established by decrementing loudness from 110 dB to 70 dB in 10-dB steps. Eye rotation axis of click-evoked VOR computed by vector analysis was referenced to known semicircular canal planes. Response characteristics were investigated with regard to enhancement using trains of three to seven clicks with 1-millisecond interclick intervals, visual fixation, head orientation, click polarity, and stimulation frequency (2 to 15 Hz). RESULTS: In subjects and SCD patients, click-evoked VOR comprised upward, contraversive-torsional eye rotations with onset latency of approximately 9 milliseconds. Its eye rotation axis aligned with the superior canal axis, suggesting activation of superior canal receptors. In subjects, the amplitude was less than 0.01°, and the magnitude was less than 3°/second; in SCD, the amplitude was up to 60 times larger at 0.66°, and its magnitude was between 5 and 92°/second, with a threshold 10 to 40 dB below normal (110 dB). The click-evoked VOR magnitude was enhanced approximately 2.5 times with trains of five clicks but was unaffected by head orientation, visual fixation, click polarity, and stimulation frequency up to 10 Hz; it was also present on the surface electro-oculogram. CONCLUSION: In superior canal dehiscence, clicks evoked a high-magnitude, low-threshold, 9-millisecond-latency vestibulo-ocular reflex that aligns with the superior canal, suggesting superior canal receptor hypersensitivity to sound.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1079-1087
Number of pages9
JournalNeurology
Volume66
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006
Externally publishedYes

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Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex
Semicircular Canals
Head
Middle Cranial Fossa
Temporal Bone
Eye Movements
Hearing
Healthy Volunteers
Hypersensitivity
Air
Pressure

Cite this

Aw, S. T. ; Todd, M. J. ; Aw, G. E. ; Magnussen, J. S. ; Curthoys, I. S. ; Halmagyi, G. M. / Click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex : Stimulus-response properties in superior canal dehiscence. In: Neurology. 2006 ; Vol. 66, No. 7. pp. 1079-1087.
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title = "Click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex: Stimulus-response properties in superior canal dehiscence",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: An enlarged, low-threshold click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be averaged from the vertical electro-oculogram in a superior canal dehiscence (SCD), a temporal bone defect between the superior semicircular canal and middle cranial fossa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the origin and quantitative stimulus-response properties of the click-evoked VOR. METHODS: Three-dimensional, binocular eye movements evoked by air-conducted 100-microsecond clicks (110 dB normal hearing level, 145 dB sound pressure level, 2 Hz) were measured with dual-search coils in 11 healthy subjects and 19 patients with SCD confirmed by CT imaging. Thresholds were established by decrementing loudness from 110 dB to 70 dB in 10-dB steps. Eye rotation axis of click-evoked VOR computed by vector analysis was referenced to known semicircular canal planes. Response characteristics were investigated with regard to enhancement using trains of three to seven clicks with 1-millisecond interclick intervals, visual fixation, head orientation, click polarity, and stimulation frequency (2 to 15 Hz). RESULTS: In subjects and SCD patients, click-evoked VOR comprised upward, contraversive-torsional eye rotations with onset latency of approximately 9 milliseconds. Its eye rotation axis aligned with the superior canal axis, suggesting activation of superior canal receptors. In subjects, the amplitude was less than 0.01°, and the magnitude was less than 3°/second; in SCD, the amplitude was up to 60 times larger at 0.66°, and its magnitude was between 5 and 92°/second, with a threshold 10 to 40 dB below normal (110 dB). The click-evoked VOR magnitude was enhanced approximately 2.5 times with trains of five clicks but was unaffected by head orientation, visual fixation, click polarity, and stimulation frequency up to 10 Hz; it was also present on the surface electro-oculogram. CONCLUSION: In superior canal dehiscence, clicks evoked a high-magnitude, low-threshold, 9-millisecond-latency vestibulo-ocular reflex that aligns with the superior canal, suggesting superior canal receptor hypersensitivity to sound.",
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Click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex : Stimulus-response properties in superior canal dehiscence. / Aw, S. T.; Todd, M. J.; Aw, G. E.; Magnussen, J. S.; Curthoys, I. S.; Halmagyi, G. M.

In: Neurology, Vol. 66, No. 7, 04.2006, p. 1079-1087.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex

T2 - Neurology

AU - Aw, S. T.

AU - Todd, M. J.

AU - Aw, G. E.

AU - Magnussen, J. S.

AU - Curthoys, I. S.

AU - Halmagyi, G. M.

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N2 - BACKGROUND: An enlarged, low-threshold click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be averaged from the vertical electro-oculogram in a superior canal dehiscence (SCD), a temporal bone defect between the superior semicircular canal and middle cranial fossa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the origin and quantitative stimulus-response properties of the click-evoked VOR. METHODS: Three-dimensional, binocular eye movements evoked by air-conducted 100-microsecond clicks (110 dB normal hearing level, 145 dB sound pressure level, 2 Hz) were measured with dual-search coils in 11 healthy subjects and 19 patients with SCD confirmed by CT imaging. Thresholds were established by decrementing loudness from 110 dB to 70 dB in 10-dB steps. Eye rotation axis of click-evoked VOR computed by vector analysis was referenced to known semicircular canal planes. Response characteristics were investigated with regard to enhancement using trains of three to seven clicks with 1-millisecond interclick intervals, visual fixation, head orientation, click polarity, and stimulation frequency (2 to 15 Hz). RESULTS: In subjects and SCD patients, click-evoked VOR comprised upward, contraversive-torsional eye rotations with onset latency of approximately 9 milliseconds. Its eye rotation axis aligned with the superior canal axis, suggesting activation of superior canal receptors. In subjects, the amplitude was less than 0.01°, and the magnitude was less than 3°/second; in SCD, the amplitude was up to 60 times larger at 0.66°, and its magnitude was between 5 and 92°/second, with a threshold 10 to 40 dB below normal (110 dB). The click-evoked VOR magnitude was enhanced approximately 2.5 times with trains of five clicks but was unaffected by head orientation, visual fixation, click polarity, and stimulation frequency up to 10 Hz; it was also present on the surface electro-oculogram. CONCLUSION: In superior canal dehiscence, clicks evoked a high-magnitude, low-threshold, 9-millisecond-latency vestibulo-ocular reflex that aligns with the superior canal, suggesting superior canal receptor hypersensitivity to sound.

AB - BACKGROUND: An enlarged, low-threshold click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be averaged from the vertical electro-oculogram in a superior canal dehiscence (SCD), a temporal bone defect between the superior semicircular canal and middle cranial fossa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the origin and quantitative stimulus-response properties of the click-evoked VOR. METHODS: Three-dimensional, binocular eye movements evoked by air-conducted 100-microsecond clicks (110 dB normal hearing level, 145 dB sound pressure level, 2 Hz) were measured with dual-search coils in 11 healthy subjects and 19 patients with SCD confirmed by CT imaging. Thresholds were established by decrementing loudness from 110 dB to 70 dB in 10-dB steps. Eye rotation axis of click-evoked VOR computed by vector analysis was referenced to known semicircular canal planes. Response characteristics were investigated with regard to enhancement using trains of three to seven clicks with 1-millisecond interclick intervals, visual fixation, head orientation, click polarity, and stimulation frequency (2 to 15 Hz). RESULTS: In subjects and SCD patients, click-evoked VOR comprised upward, contraversive-torsional eye rotations with onset latency of approximately 9 milliseconds. Its eye rotation axis aligned with the superior canal axis, suggesting activation of superior canal receptors. In subjects, the amplitude was less than 0.01°, and the magnitude was less than 3°/second; in SCD, the amplitude was up to 60 times larger at 0.66°, and its magnitude was between 5 and 92°/second, with a threshold 10 to 40 dB below normal (110 dB). The click-evoked VOR magnitude was enhanced approximately 2.5 times with trains of five clicks but was unaffected by head orientation, visual fixation, click polarity, and stimulation frequency up to 10 Hz; it was also present on the surface electro-oculogram. CONCLUSION: In superior canal dehiscence, clicks evoked a high-magnitude, low-threshold, 9-millisecond-latency vestibulo-ocular reflex that aligns with the superior canal, suggesting superior canal receptor hypersensitivity to sound.

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