Cognitive function and driving: important for young and old alike

Selena Ledger, Joanne M. Bennett, Eugene Chekaluk, Jennifer Batchelor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Younger drivers and older drivers have comparably high ‘crash risks’. Research into individual cognitive domains responsible for this high crash risk has been widely investigated in both groups, however research into the examination of overall cognitive functioning for younger drivers is limited. Furthermore, comparative research between the two groups is needed to determine if the same relationships between overall cognitive functioning and driving performance can account for the comparatively high crash risk for both populations. The overall aim of this research was to investigate and compare this relationship in both older and younger drivers. Fifty-two (64.7% female) first year psychology students aged between 17 and 23 years formed a sample of younger drivers. Thirty-nine (34% female) people aged between 63 and 84 years formed a sample of healthy older drivers. Participants were tested on a series of cognitive tests and undertook a drive on a driving simulator. Relationship were found between cognitive functioning (across the domains of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial skills and mental status) and driving performance for both younger and older drivers, with the pattern of these relationships predominately comparable between the two cohorts. Furthermore, overall cognitive functioning improved the prediction of driving performance over and above age for speeding (ΔR2 = 23.5%), lane deviations (ΔR2 = 18.8%), and overall driving performance (ΔR2 = 22.9%). The findings from the current study provide evidence that cognitive functioning is related to driving performance in a somewhat similar pattern for both younger and older drivers alike. This study provides evidence that overall cognitive functioning predicts driving performance after controlling for age, suggesting that these skills are important for understanding the crash risk for both population groups. In an investigation of parsimonious models, visuospatial ability (p <.01) and mental status (p <.05) were found to predict speeding, and executive function (p <.05) was found to predict lane deviation over and above age. The parsimonious model found that attention, visuospatial skills, and mental status (all p <.05) were predictive of overall driving performance over and above age. Together, these findings warrants further investigation of the role that cognitive functioning plays in driving performance regardless of age, with a move towards a single model for cognitive function and driving performance for both population groups.

LanguageEnglish
Pages262-273
Number of pages12
JournalTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Volume60
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

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Cognition
driver
Executive Function
Research
performance
Aptitude
population group
Population Groups
Simulators
Students
Psychology
Data storage equipment
psychology student
comparative research
first-year student
Population
evidence
Group
examination
ability

Keywords

  • cognitive functioning
  • driving
  • older drivers
  • younger drivers

Cite this

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title = "Cognitive function and driving: important for young and old alike",
abstract = "Younger drivers and older drivers have comparably high ‘crash risks’. Research into individual cognitive domains responsible for this high crash risk has been widely investigated in both groups, however research into the examination of overall cognitive functioning for younger drivers is limited. Furthermore, comparative research between the two groups is needed to determine if the same relationships between overall cognitive functioning and driving performance can account for the comparatively high crash risk for both populations. The overall aim of this research was to investigate and compare this relationship in both older and younger drivers. Fifty-two (64.7{\%} female) first year psychology students aged between 17 and 23 years formed a sample of younger drivers. Thirty-nine (34{\%} female) people aged between 63 and 84 years formed a sample of healthy older drivers. Participants were tested on a series of cognitive tests and undertook a drive on a driving simulator. Relationship were found between cognitive functioning (across the domains of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial skills and mental status) and driving performance for both younger and older drivers, with the pattern of these relationships predominately comparable between the two cohorts. Furthermore, overall cognitive functioning improved the prediction of driving performance over and above age for speeding (ΔR2 = 23.5{\%}), lane deviations (ΔR2 = 18.8{\%}), and overall driving performance (ΔR2 = 22.9{\%}). The findings from the current study provide evidence that cognitive functioning is related to driving performance in a somewhat similar pattern for both younger and older drivers alike. This study provides evidence that overall cognitive functioning predicts driving performance after controlling for age, suggesting that these skills are important for understanding the crash risk for both population groups. In an investigation of parsimonious models, visuospatial ability (p <.01) and mental status (p <.05) were found to predict speeding, and executive function (p <.05) was found to predict lane deviation over and above age. The parsimonious model found that attention, visuospatial skills, and mental status (all p <.05) were predictive of overall driving performance over and above age. Together, these findings warrants further investigation of the role that cognitive functioning plays in driving performance regardless of age, with a move towards a single model for cognitive function and driving performance for both population groups.",
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Cognitive function and driving : important for young and old alike. / Ledger, Selena; Bennett, Joanne M.; Chekaluk, Eugene; Batchelor, Jennifer.

In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 60, 01.2019, p. 262-273.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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