A limited number of longitudinal studies have investigated long-term neuropsychological development in the pediatric stroke population. This study retrospectively examines cognitive outcomes in 41 children with a history of stroke, with reference to age at stroke, laterality, region and mechanism of stroke. In the course of recovery, neuropsychological measures of intellectual functioning and memory were administered at two time points, whilst executive functioning, attention and academic skills were administered at one time point. As predicted, children with stroke performed significantly worse compared to normative expectations on all neuropsychological measures. Up to two thirds of children scored in the borderline impaired and impaired ranges on at least one domain of cognition. Performance on intellectual and memory assessment remained relatively stable over time. Younger age at stroke was found to be associated with poorer intellectual functioning. No effects of laterality of stroke on neuropsychological performance over time were found. Children with subcortical stroke demonstrated a greater improvement in immediate memory over time than children with cortical stroke. These findings reveal that children with stroke display long-term cognitive difficulties that typically remain stable over time. Attention and academic skills are particularly vulnerable to impairment. Further evidence that age at stroke is a significant factor in terms of cognitive outcome is provided, in support of the “early vulnerability” position.