Combined time- and space-resolved Raman spectrometer for the non-invasive depth profiling of chemical hazards

Biju Cletus, William Olds, Emad L. Izake, Shankaran Sundarajoo, Peter M. Fredericks, Esa Jaatinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


A time-resolved inverse spatially offset Raman spectrometer was constructed for depth profiling of Raman-active substances under both the lab and the field environments. The system operating principles and performance are discussed along with its advantages relative to traditional continuous wave spatially offset Raman spectrometer. The developed spectrometer uses a combination of space- and time-resolved detection in order to obtain high-quality Raman spectra from substances hidden behind coloured opaque surface layers, such as plastic and garments, with a single measurement. The time-gated spatially offset Raman spectrometer was successfully used to detect concealed explosives and drug precursors under incandescent and fluorescent background light as well as under daylight. The average screening time was 50 s per measurement. The excitation energy requirements were relatively low (20 mW) which makes the probe safe for screening hazardous substances. The unit has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than previous picosecond-based systems, to provide a functional platform for in-line or in-field sensing of chemical substances.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-263
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical and bioanalytical chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • time-resolved SORS
  • noninvasive detection
  • depth profiling
  • in-field screening
  • national security


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