Comparison of dermal absorption of zinc from different sunscreen formulations and differing UV exposure based on stable isotope tracing

Brian Gulson*, Herbert Wong, Michael Korsch, Laura Gomez, Philip Casey, Maxine McCall, Malcolm McCulloch, Julie Trotter, Jenny Stauber, Gavin Greenoak

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    52 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In a pilot study to determine if zinc (Zn) from zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen can penetrate human skin in vivo, nanoparticles (~30nm) of a stable isotope (52% 68Zn enrichment) were incorporated into an essentially phytochemical-based formulation and applied to the backs of 3 human subjects twice daily for 5days during the Southern Hemisphere winter. Blood and urine were collected prior to application and at regular intervals and up to 50days. As observed in a larger outdoor trial following this pilot study but with a different formulation and with UV exposure: values of 68Zn in blood continued to increase beyond the 5day application phase with the highest measurement at 14days after the first application; variable amounts of the 68Zn tracer were observed in urine; and the amounts of extra Zn added to blood were small and indicate very low levels of absorption (minimal estimate <0.01% of the applied dose) through the skin. Reasons for differences in absorption detected in the stable isotope trials and previous investigations include: the sensitivity of the stable isotope method; the duration of the investigations; the number of applications of sunscreen formulation; in vitro methods with excised skin; lack of measurement of blood and urine; no skin flexing; and lack of UV exposure.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)313-318
    Number of pages6
    JournalScience of the Total Environment
    Volume420
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2012

    Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Comparison of dermal absorption of zinc from different sunscreen formulations and differing UV exposure based on stable isotope tracing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this