Competitive Productivity (CP) as an emergent phenomenon: Methods for modelling micro, meso, and macro levels

Hume Winzar*, Chris Baumann, Alena Soboleva, Seung Ho Park, David Pitt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper argues that hospitality enterprises are a part of a complex-adaptive system. The exploration of Competitive Productivity (CP) and related concepts at the macro, meso, and micro (M-M-M) levels requires that we understand interrelationships beyond traditional analytical tools. We propose three approaches to testing M-M-M CP architecture interactions: multi-level modeling, social network modeling, and agent-based modeling. Examples from the hospitality literature are offered for multi-level modeling and agent-based modeling, and we illustrate social networks by showing that IJHM authors network to create a highly competitive journal. Multi-level modeling is useful for top-down testing (macro → meso → micro), but unsuitable for bottom-up modeling (micro → meso → macro) without making unrealistic assumptions about the nature of data. Interactions at the micro-level produce meso-level and macro-level behaviors, emergent phenomena that cannot be inferred by examining micro-level agents or behaviors. Social network theory and agent-based modeling are viable alternatives for examining and modeling emergent phenomena.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103252
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Hospitality Management
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Competitive advantage
  • Competitive Productivity (CP)
  • Competitiveness
  • Emergent property
  • Macro–meso–micro architecture


Dive into the research topics of 'Competitive Productivity (CP) as an emergent phenomenon: Methods for modelling micro, meso, and macro levels'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this