Competitive vs affiliative design of immersive VR exergames

Kiran Ijaz*, Yifan Wang, David Milne, Rafael A. Calvo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceeding contributionpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Virtual reality (VR) can provide compelling experiences which might enhance users’ engagement with physical activity. Despite the known health benefits of exergaming, there is a limited understanding of how various game designs impact user experience. This work proposes VR Rides, a virtual reality exergaming platform that combines a recumbent tricycle, real-world panoramic images, an Oculus Rift headset and a Microsoft Kinect camera, where the player can navigate real locations in a safe virtual environment. We further compare two game designs: a competitive guessing game and affiliative tour. This pilot study with both young and older adults indicates that task enjoyment (r = 0.721, p = 0.000), motivation (r = 0.565, p = 0.009) and connectedness (r = 0.697, p = 0.001) is higher in the competitive variant. Participants in both variants were highly engaged, likely due to the use of immersive VR. Descriptive analysis suggests that participants showed similar connectedness in affiliative tour (63%) and competitive design (62%).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSerious Games
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Joint International Conference, JCSG 2016, Proceedings
EditorsTim Marsh, Minhua Ma, Manuel Fradinho Oliveira, Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge, Stefan Göbel
PublisherSpringer-VDI-Verlag GmbH & Co. KG
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9783319458410
ISBN (Print)9783319458403
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes
Event2nd International Joint Conference on Serious Games, JCSG 2016 - Brisbane, Australia
Duration: 26 Sep 201627 Sep 2016

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume9894 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference2nd International Joint Conference on Serious Games, JCSG 2016


  • Exergames
  • Game design
  • Immersive VR games
  • Virtual reality


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