Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections in neonates, severely immunocompromised and postoperative patients. The lack of genomic information on E. anophelis hinders our understanding of itsmechanisms of pathogenesis.Here,we report the first complete genomesequence of E. anophelisNUHP1 and assess its response to oxidative stress. Elizabethkingia anophelis NUHP1 has a circular genome of 4,369,828 base pairs and 4,141 predicted coding sequences. Sequence analysis indicates that E. anophelis has well-developed systems for scavenging iron and stress response. Many putative virulence factors and antibiotic resistance geneswere identified, underscoring potential host-pathogen interactions and antibiotic resistance. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome profiling indicates that expressions of genes involved in synthesis of an yersiniabactin-like iron siderophore and heme utilization are highly induced as a protective mechanism toward oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide treatment. Chromeazurol sulfonate assay verified that siderophore production of E. anophelis is increased in the presence of oxidative stress. We further showed that hemoglobin facilitates the growth, hydrogen peroxide tolerance, cell attachment, and biofilm formation of E. anophelis NUHP1. Our study suggests that siderophore production and heme uptake pathwaysmight play essential roles in stress response and virulence of the emerging pathogen E. anophelis.
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- Elizabethkingia anophelis
- Iron siderophore
- Oxidative stress response