Complex graphemes as functional spelling units: Evidence from acquired dysgraphia

M. J. Tainturier*, B. C. Rapp

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


The visual word recognition literature suggests that complex graphemes (or digraphs) such as CK function as units. This proposal has also been put forward in recent spelling models (Houghton and Zorzi, 2003) and the study we report on here provides initial empirical support for the claim. We performed detailed analyses of the spelling performance of two brain-damaged individuals with graphemic buffer deficits. Results revealed that (a) FM and BWN made fewer errors on consonant digraphs (e.g., CK) than on matched controls clusters (e.g., CR) and (b) BWN produced more transposition errors on vowel digraphs than on control clusters. These results support the view that digraphs are represented as units in which the relative order of constituent letters is encoded.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-131
Number of pages10
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2004
Externally publishedYes


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