Compositional multivariate statistical analysis of thermal groundwater provenance: a hydrogeochemical case study from Ireland

Sarah Blake*, Tiernan Henry, John Murray, Rory Flood, Mark R. Muller, Alan G. Jones, Volker Rath

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Citations (Scopus)


Thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) salinity and increased water-rock interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of sulfides, sulfates and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods, or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes governing the hydrochemistry of a group of thermal springs in a low-enthalpy setting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-188
Number of pages18
JournalApplied Geochemistry
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Compositional data analysis
  • Hydrochemistry
  • Ireland
  • Low-enthalpy geothermal
  • Principal component analysis
  • Thermal springs


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