Computational fluid dynamics (cfd) investigation of submerged combustion behavior in a tuyere blown slag-fuming furnace

Nazmul Huda*, Jamal Naser, G. A. Brooks, M. A. Reuter, R. W. Matusewicz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


A thin-slice computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a conventional tuyere blown slagfuming furnace has been developed in Eulerian multiphase flow approach by employing a threedimensional (3-D) hybrid unstructured orthographic grid system. The model considers a thin slice of the conventional tuyere blown slag-fuming furnace to investigate details of fluid flow, submerged coal combustion dynamics, coal use behavior, jet penetration behavior, bath interaction conditions, and generation of turbulence in the bath. The model was developed by coupling the CFD with the kinetics equations developed by Richards et al. for a zinc-fuming furnace. The model integrates submerged coal combustion at the tuyere tip and chemical reactions with the heat, mass, and momentum interfacial interaction between the phases present in the system. A commercial CFD package AVL Fire 2009.2 (AVL, Graz, Austria) coupled with several user-defined subroutines in FORTRAN programming language were used to develop the model. The model predicted the velocity, temperature field of the molten slag bath, generated turbulence and vortex, and coal use behavior from the slag bath. The tuyere jet penetration length (lP) was compared with the equation provided by Hoefele and Brimacombe from isothermal experimental work lP/ d0 = 10:7(Nt Fr)0.46 (ρg/ρl) 0.35 and found 2.26 times higher, which can be attributed to coal combustion and gas expansion at a high temperature. The jet expansion angle measured for the slag system studied is 85 deg for the specific inlet conditions during the simulation time studied. The highest coal penetration distance was found to be l/L = 0.2, where l is the distance from the tuyere tip along the center line and L is the total length (2.44 m) of the modeled furnace. The model also predicted that 10 pct of the injected coal bypasses the tuyere gas stream uncombusted and carried to the free surface by the tuyere gas stream, which contributes to zinc oxide reduction near the free surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1054-1068
Number of pages15
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012
Externally publishedYes

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