Computational refinement identifies functional destructive single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human retinoid X receptor gene

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Alterations in the nuclear retinoid X receptor (RXRs) signalling have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the main cause underlying single nucleic acid variations which in turn determine heterogeneity within various populations. These genetic polymorphisms have been suggested to associate with various degenerative disorders in population-wide analysis. This bioinformatics study was designed to investigate, search, retrieve and identify deleterious SNPs which may affect the structure and function of various RXR isoforms through a computational and molecular modelling approach. Amongst the 1,813 retrieved SNPs several were found to be deleterious with rs140464195_G139R, rs368400425_R358W and rs368586400_L383F RXRα mutant variants being the most detrimental ones causing changes in the interatomic interactions and decreasing the flexibility of the mutant proteins. Molecular genetics analysis identified seven missense mutations in RXRα/β/γ isoforms. Two novel mutations SNP IDs (rs1588299621 and rs1057519958) were identified in RXRα isoform. We used several in silico prediction tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen, I-Mutant, Protein Variation Effect Analyzer (PROVEAN), PANTHER, SNP&Go, PhD-SNP and SNPeffect to predict pathogenicity and protein stability associated with RXR mutations. The structural assessment by DynaMut tool revealed that hydrogen bonds were affected along with hydrophobic and carbonyl interactions resulting in reduced flexibility at the mutated residue positions but ultimately stabilizing the molecule as a whole. Summarizing, analysis of the missense mutations in RXR isoforms showed a mix of conclusive and inconclusive genotype–phenotype correlations suggesting the use of sophisticated computational analysis tools for studying RXR variants.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1458-1478
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics
Issue number4
Early online date31 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2023


  • Glaucoma
  • homology modelling
  • retinoids
  • RXRs
  • SNPs
  • genotype–phenotype correlations


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