Gene expression analyses of stem cells (SCs) will help to uncover or further define signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of self-renewal, pluripotency, and/or multipotency. In recent years, proteomic approaches have produced a wealth of data identifying proteins and mechanisms involved in SC proliferation and differentiation. Although many proteomics techniques have been developed and improved in peptide and protein separation, as well as mass spectrometry, several important issues, including sample heterogeneity, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interaction, and high-throughput quantification of hydrophobic and low-abundance proteins, still remain to be addressed and require further technical optimization. This review summarizes the methodologies used and the information gathered with proteome analyses of SCs, and it discusses biological and technical challenges for proteomic study of SCs.
- Embryonic stem cell biology
- Pluripotent stem cell
- Post-translational modification
- Proteomics Mass spectrometry
- Quantitative proteomics
- Stem cells
- Two-dimensional electrophoresis