Connective tissue disease-related pulmonary arterial hypertension

Vivek Thakkar, Edmund M. T. Lau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Over the past two decades, there have been several advances in the assessment and management of connective tissue disease-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (CTD-PAH) that improved outcomes of the treatment of this lethal disease, and this will be the focus of this study. Systemic sclerosis is the leading cause of CTD-PAH, followed by systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, idiopathic inflammatory myositis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren's syndrome. Clinical registries have been invaluable in informing about the burden of disease, risk and prognostic factors, and temporal trends with respect to treatment and outcome in CTD-PAH. The major advances have centered on improved disease classification and diagnostic criteria, screening and early diagnosis, the emergence of evidence-based therapies including combination goal-orientated treatment strategies, and the establishment of centers with expertise in PAH.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-38
Number of pages17
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Connective tissue disease
  • Diagnosis
  • Early detection
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Review
  • Screening
  • Survival
  • Systemic sclerosis
  • Treatment


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