Consonants are speech sounds produced with a closure or near complete constriction of the vocal tract. All languages systematically exploit place of articulation to differentiate consonants. Eight other phonetically independent parameters are used to create consonant contrast: airstream, constriction degree, laryngeal setting, nasality, laterality, length, articulator stiffness, and respiratory strength. Aspiration, affrication, pre-stopping, secondary articulations, and other properties of ‘complex’ consonants are best described as patterns of coordination in the underlying gestures.
|Name||Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics|
|Publisher||Cambridge University Press|
- phonetic parameters
- place of articulation