Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment

M. Sundaravadivel, S. Vigneswaran

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    164 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In the field of wastewater treatment, energy-intensive and highly mechanized technologies are giving way to nature-based technologies that utilize solar energy and living organisms. Constructed treatment wetland (CTW) technology has played an important role in bringing about the change. Wetland technology can provide cheap and effective wastewater treatment in both temperate and tropical climates, and are suitable for adoption in both industrialized as well as developing nations. Currently, CTWs are being utilized for removal of a range of pollutants and a broad variety of wastewaters worldwide. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the CTW technology and to present the pollutant removal performance experiences gathered through the application of this technology around the world.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)351-409
    Number of pages59
    JournalCritical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology
    Volume31
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2001

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