Convergence of RD intensity in OECD countries: evidence since 1870

Sefa Awaworyi Churchill, John Inekwe, Kris Ivanovski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Research and development (RD) activity has been widely cited as one of the key drivers of economic growth over several decades. This research note employs the Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75(6):1771--1855, 2007; Econometrics 24(7):1153--1185, 2009) methodology to test for the convergence of RD intensity across OECD countries spanning 145 years. We find evidence in favour of full convergence (i.e. convergence among all 20 countries) in RD intensity. However, the club clustering procedure reveals that prior to World War II (WWII) the patterns of RD intensity differ across countries where we identify one convergent club and one non-convergent club. These results suggest that the post-WWII period witnessed significant international RD spillovers between countries, given that all countries converge to the same steady state. Alternatively, the pre-WWII period included countries where technology and innovation were lagging behind.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-306
Number of pages12
JournalEmpirical Economics
Issue number1
Early online date29 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2020


  • R&D intensity
  • Club convergence/clustering
  • OECD


Dive into the research topics of 'Convergence of RD intensity in OECD countries: evidence since 1870'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this