PURPOSE: To quantify the association between arcus and hyperlipidemia in an older population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. METHODS: Arcus and serum lipids were measured in the Blue Mountains Eye Study (n = 3,654, aged >49 years). Arcus was graded as absent, partial (<180 degrees) or circumferential (≥180 degrees). Associations between arcus and hyperlipidemia were assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for age and vascular risk factors. RESULTS: Arcus was strongly associated with age (P < .0001). After age adjustment, arcus was associated with male sex (P < .01) and diabetes (P < .02) but not with hypertension or smoking. Corneal arcus was significantly associated with progressively higher levels of total cholesterol over 5 mmol/l. Adjusted odds increased from 1.6 for cholesterol 6.0 to 6.9 mmol/l to 4.6 for cholesterol >8.0 mmol/l, and was 1.9 for high triglyceride >73.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSION: This population-based finding confirms that corneal arcus was associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in older persons.