Correlation of BRAF Mutation Status in Circulating-Free DNA and Tumor and Association with Clinical Outcome across Four BRAFi and MEKi Clinical Trials

Ademi Santiago-Walker, Robert Gagnon*, Jolly Mazumdar, Michelle Casey, Georgina V. Long, Dirk Schadendorf, Keith Flaherty, Richard Kefford, Axel Hauschild, Patrick Hwu, Patricia Haney, Anne O'Hagan, Jennifer Carver, Vicki Goodman, Jeffrey Legos, Anne Marie Martin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

109 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Tumor-derived circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a potential alternative source from which to derive tumor mutation status. cfDNA data from four clinical studies of the BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) dabrafenib or the MEK inhibitor (MEKi) trametinib were analyzed to determine the association between BRAF mutation status in cfDNA and tumor tissue, and the association of BRAF cfDNA mutation status with baseline factors and clinical outcome. Experimental Design: Patients with BRAF V600 mutation- positive melanoma were enrolled in each study after central confirmation of BRAF status in tumor using a PCR-based assay. BRAF mutation status in cfDNA from patient plasma collected at baseline, 732 of 836 (88%) enrolled patients in total, was determined. Results: BRAF mutations were detectable in cfDNA in 76% and 81% of patients with BRAF V600E/V600K-positive tumors, respectively. Patients negative for BRAF mutations in cfDNA had longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in each of the four studies, compared with patients with detectable cfDNA BRAF mutations. The presence of BRAFmutant cfDNA was an independent prognostic factor for PFS after multivariate adjustment for baseline factors in three of four studies. Patients negative for BRAF mutation-positive cfDNA in plasma had higher response rates to dabrafenib and trametinib. Conclusions: BRAF mutations in cfDNA are detectable in >75% of late-stage melanoma patients with BRAF mutation- positive tumors. The lack of circulating, BRAF mutation-positive cfDNA is clinically significant for metastatic melanoma patients, and may be a prognostic marker for better disease outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)567-574
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016
Externally publishedYes

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