Cosmology, society, and humanity: Tian in the Guodian texts (part II)

Shirley Chan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


In this sequel of my previous publication, I will continue my discussion of the word tian as it appears in the Guodian texts. I shall argue that, from natural order arises xing, human's distinctive potentiality, which is endowed by heaven to follow and be guided by the heavenly principle. I thereafter will elaborate the sages' role as cultural creators. The distinct roles of heaven and humanity are further deepened when tian and ming are perceived as the determinants of an individual's success or failure. I will go on to show how the word tian can be understood as the source or underlying pattern that brings about coincidental or synchronous events and experiences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-120
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Chinese Philosophy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012


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