Counter-terrorism responses in Asia have varied according to the scale of the terrorist/insurgent challenge. The diverse and complex nature of the terrorist challenge in Asia has meant that a variety of responses have been adopted by states in the region, including the criminal justice approach to counter-terrorism, the war model of counter-terrorism, and the waging of counterinsurgency operations. It is clear that the threat is most serious in South Asia, although Southeast Asia has also suffered from terrorism and insurgent threats. The chapter demonstrates that terrorism and insurgency in Asia have been persistent, enduring and in some cases, severe. Sustained counterterrorism and counterinsurgency have generally led to the problem being contained, in some cases, with difficulty. However, their very persistence suggests that political violence in the form of terrorism and insurgencies in Asia is an enduring, long-term challenge.