Sea country planning has emerged as a tool for Indigenous Australian groups to express their aspirations and seek investment for managing the sea. This article contextualises sea country within a Yolngu Traditional Owner view, challenging dominant understandings, and administrative and legislative provisions for public ownership of the seas. Challenges for progressing Yolngu sea country agendas are discussed with respect to dominant culture views on sea country ownership. We then introduce the concept of sea country plans and consider the advantages of Traditional Owners defining their own geographical and governance area and aspirations for management. The article offers a Yolngu ontological approach to rethinking sea country and its management.