Cross-cultural similarities and differences in the theoretical predictors of cyberbullying perpetration: results from a seven-country study

Christopher P. Barlett*, Luke W. Seyfert, Matthew M. Simmers, Vivian Hsueh Hua Chen, Jaqueline Gomes Cavalcanti, Barbara Krahe, Kanae Suzuki, Wayne A. Warburton, Randy Yee Man Wong, Carlos Eduardo Pimentel, Marika Skowronski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The Barlett Gentile cyberbullying model (BGCM) posits that correlated anonymity perceptions and the belief in the irrelevance of muscularity for online bullying (BIMOB) predict positive cyberbullying attitudes to predict subsequent cyberbullying perpetration. Much research has shown the BGCM to be the only published theory that differentiates traditional and cyberbullying while validly predicting cyberbullying. So far, however, the cross-cultural ubiquity has gone understudied. Thus, 1,592 adult participants across seven countries (USA, Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Japan, and Singapore) completed measures germane to the BGCM. Supporting the BGCM, the variables were significantly correlated for the entire sample, participants from independent cultures, and participants from interdependent cultures. However, the relationship between BIMOB and positive cyberbullying attitudes as well as the relationship between positive cyberbullying attitudes and cyberbullying perpetration were stronger for independent cultures. These results suggest that the BGCM postulates are mostly universal, but several relations appear to be culturally different. Theoretical implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-119
Number of pages9
JournalAggressive Behavior
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • anonymity
  • cross-cultural differences
  • culture
  • cyberbullying
  • cyberbullying attitudes

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