Introduction: Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a common cause of urethral stricture disease. The purpose of this article is to review the literature over the past 5 years, to describe current treatment of lichen sclerosus as it relates to urethral stricture in men.
Materials and methods: Literature reviews were performed using PUBMED, with search terms "lichen scleros*" and "urethral stenosis", as well as "lichen scleros*" and "urethral stricture". Relevant articles published within the past 5 years were selected for review. A summary of current treatment of lichen sclerosus was prepared and synthesized.
Results: For LS affecting genital skin, topical steroids are a mainstay of therapy but in advanced cases, surgery may be required such as circumcision. When LS causes urethral stricture, urethral dilatation is unlikely to be successful long term, and surgery is often required, such as meatoplasty, single- or two-stage urethroplasty, or perineal urethrostomy. Oral mucosal grafting is the graft of choice, and usage of genital skin for flaps or grafts is best avoided due to predilection for recurrence. Biopsy and long-term surveillance of LS are recommended, due to its potential association with squamous cell carcinoma development.
Conclusion: Although debate still exists regarding the pathogenesis of LS, it is agreed that LS can pose a treatment challenge to physicians and surgeons. Treatment options for LS range from pharmacological to surgical, depending on severity and location of disease, patient factors, and response of previous treatments.
- Lichen sclerosis et atrophicus
- Mouth mucosa
- Urethral cancer
- Urethral diseases
- Urethral stricture